I.then [Brit ðɛn, Am ðɛn]ZARFWhen then is used to mean at that time, it is translated by alors or à ce moment-là: I was working in Oxford then = je travaillais alors à Oxford or je travaillais à Oxford à ce moment-là. Note that alors always comes immediately after the verb in French. For particular usages see I. 1. in the entry below. For translations of by then, since then, from then, until then see the entries by, since, from, until. When then is used to mean next it can be translated by either puis or ensuite: a man, a horse and then a dog = un homme, un cheval puis or et ensuite un chien. For particular usages see I. 2. in the entry below. When then is used to mean in that case it is translated by alors: then why worry? = alors pourquoi s'inquiéter? For all other uses see the entry below.
I.until [Brit ənˈtɪl, Am ˌənˈtɪl]İLGEÇWhen used as a preposition in positive sentences until is translated by jusqu'à: they're staying until Monday = ils restent jusqu'à lundi. Remember that jusqu'à + le becomes jusqu'au and jusqu'à + les becomes jusqu'aux: until the right moment = jusqu'au bon moment; until the exams = jusqu'aux examens. In negative sentences not until is translated by ne…pas avant: I can't see you until Friday = je ne peux pas vous voir avant vendredi. When used as a conjunction in positive sentences until is translated by jusqu'à ce que + subjunctive: we'll stay here until Maya comes back = nous resterons ici jusqu'à ce que Maya revienne. In negative sentences where the two verbs have different subjects not until is translated by ne…pas avant que + subjunctive: we won't leave until Maya comes back = nous ne partirons pas avant que Maya revienne. In negative sentences where the two verbs have the same subject not until is translated by pas avant de + infininitive: we won't leave until we've seen Claire = nous ne partirons pas avant d'avoir vu Claire.
I.there [Brit ðɛː, ðə, Am ðɛr]ZAMIR(as impersonal subject)There is generally translated by là after prepositions: near there = près de là etc and when emphasizing the location of an object/point etc visible to the speaker: put them there = mettez-les là. Remember that voilà is used to draw attention to a visible place/object/person: there's my watch = voilà ma montre, whereas il y a is used for generalizations: there's a village nearby = il y a un village tout près. there when unstressed with verbs such as aller and être is translated by y: we went there last year = nous y sommes allés l'année dernière, but not where emphasis is made: it was there that we went last year = c'est là que nous sommes allés l'année dernière. For examples of the above and further uses of there see the entry below.
from [Brit frɒm, frəm, Am frəm]İLGEÇWhen from is used as a straightforward preposition in English it is translated by de in French: from Rome = de Rome; from the sea = de la mer; from Lisa = de Lisa. Remember that de + le always becomes du: from the office = du bureau, and de + les always becomes des: from the United States = des États-Unis. from is often used after verbs in English ( suffer from, benefit from, protect from etc.). For translations, consult the appropriate verb entry ( suffer, benefit, protect etc.). from is used after certain nouns and adjectives in English ( shelter from, exemption from, free from, safe from etc.). For translations, consult the appropriate noun or adjective entry ( shelter, exemption, free, safe etc.). This dictionary contains Usage Notes on such topics as nationalities, countries and continents, provinces and regions. Many of these use the preposition from. For the index to these notes . For examples of the above and particular usages of from, see the entry below.